Material Point Method
Material Point Method (MPM):
MPM was developed by Sulsky (Sulsky et al. 1995) for solving solid mechanics problems of dynamic nature. MPM evolved from the particle-in-cell method (Harlow, 1964, Brackbill et al. 1988), developed specifically for fluid mechanics. MPM has combined Eulerian (provided by the grid) and the Lagrangian (provided by the material points) descriptions. The grid is usually held fixed and used to determine spatial gradients and for solving field equations. Various refinements levels can be used in the grid to achieve spatial and temporal refinements. The material points are convected by the deformation of the solid throughout the background grid and are not subjected to mesh tangling. Non-slip contact between the surfaces can be handled automatically.