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Application of Bernoulli equation in cold forming of Steel

farzad64's picture

Hi All

I know it might sound weird, but can I use the bernoulli equation to know the velocity of steel running in thinner throtles in cold forming, that might have a higher velocity, via analytic method. in this condition, the metal is not so much like a fluid, but it's deforming ,and it's behavior and speed is different when it passes in different cross section areas

Ravindra Duddu's picture


During cold forming of steel, the metal still behaves like an elastic solid rather than fluid, that is, the metal resists shear stress unlike a fluid that flows under applied shear stress. You can model cold forming of steel using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian or purely Eulerian solid mechanics as done in the following references:

1. Dvorkin EN, Cavaliere MA, Goldschmit MB. A three field element via Augmented Lagrangian for modelling bulk metal forming processes. Comput. Mech. 1995; 17(1–2):1–9.

2. Demarco D, Dvorkin EN. Modeling of metal forming processes: implementation of an iterative solver in the flow formulation. Computers & Structures 2001; 79(20–21):1933–1942.

3. Dvorkin EN, Toscano RG. A new rigid-viscoplastic model for simulating thermal strain effects in metal-forming processes. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2003; 58(12):1803–1816.

4. Demarco D, Dvorkin EN. An Eulerian finite element formulation for modelling stationary finite strain elastic deformation processes. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2005; 62(8):1038–1063.

5. Berazategui DA, Cavaliere MA, Montelatici L, Dvorkin EN. On the modelling of complex 3D bulk metal forming processes via the pseudo-concentrations technique. application to the simulation of the Mannesmann piercing process. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2006; 65(7):1113–1144.

6. R. Duddu, L.L. Lavier, T.J.R. Hughes, V.M. Calo, A finite strain Eulerian formulation for compressible and nearly incompressible hyperelasticity using high-order B-spline finite elements, Internat. J. Numer. Methods Engrg. 89 (6) (2012) 762–785.

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