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Strain Engineering of 2D Materials: Issues and Opportunities at the Interface

Zhaohe Dai's picture

In this progress report, we reviewed recent advances in strategies for applying mechanical strain into 2D materials and recent state‐of‐the‐art characterizations of interface mechanics for 2D material–substrate systems.

ABSTRACT: Triggered by the growing needs of developing semiconductor devices at ever‐decreasing scales, strain engineering of 2D materials has recently seen a surge of interest. The goal of this principle is to exploit mechanical strain to tune the electronic and photonic performance of 2D materials and to ultimately achieve high‐performance 2D‐material‐based devices. Although strain engineering has been well studied for traditional semiconductor materials and is now routinely used in their manufacturing, recent experiments on strain engineering of 2D materials have shown new opportunities for fundamental physics and exciting applications, along with new challenges, due to the atomic nature of 2D materials. Here, recent advances in the application of mechanical strain into 2D materials are reviewed. These developments are categorized by the deformation modes of the 2D material–substrate system: in‐plane mode and out‐of‐plane mode. Recent state‐of‐the‐art characterization of the interface mechanics for these 2D material–substrate systems is also summarized. These advances highlight how the strain or strain‐coupled applications of 2D materials rely on the interfacial properties, essentially shear and adhesion, and finally offer direct guidelines for the deterministic design of mechanical strains into 2D materials for ultrathin semiconductor applications.

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