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Localized and extended deformations of elastic shells - Ashkan Vaziri & L. Mahadevan, Early Edition PNAS
The dried raisin, the crushed soda can, and the collapsed bicycle inner tube exemplify the nonlinear mechanical response of naturally curved elastic surfaces with different intrinsic curvatures to a variety of different external loads. To understand the formation and evolution of these features in a minimal setting, we consider a simple assay: the response of curved surfaces to point indentation. We find that for surfaces with zero or positive Gauss curvature, a common feature of the response is the appearance of faceted structures that are organized in intricate localized patterns, with hysteretic transitions between multiple metastable states. In contrast, for surfaces with negative Gauss curvature the surface deforms nonlocally along characteristic lines that extend through the entire system. These different responses may be understood quantitatively by using numerical simulations and classified qualitatively by using simple geometric ideas. Our ideas have implications for the behavior of small-scale structures.
Please see the attached paper and online supplementary materials for further information. I hope you find the work interesting.