In this paper we formulate a geometric theory of thermal stresses.
Given a temperature distribution, we associate a Riemannian
material manifold to the body, with a metric that explicitly
depends on the temperature distribution. A change of temperature
corresponds to a change of the material metric. In this sense, a
temperature change is a concrete example of the so-called
referential evolutions. We also make a concrete connection between
our geometric point of view and the multiplicative decomposition