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Actuation model

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Dynamic model of ion and water transport in ionic polymer-metal composites

In the process of electro-mechanical transduction of
ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs), the transport of ion and water molecule
plays an important role. In this paper, the theoretical transport models of
IPMCs are critically reviewed, with particular emphasis on the recent
developments in the latest decade. The models can be divided into three classes,
thermodynamics of irreversible process model, frictional model and Nernst-Planck
(NP) equation model. To some extent the three models can be transformed into
each other, but their differences are also obvious arising from the various
mechanisms that considered in different models. The transport of ion and water
molecule in IPMCs is compared with that in membrane electrode assembly and

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