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split singularities

Nanshu Lu's picture

Singular stress fields at corners in flip-chip packages

An electronic device integrates diverse materials, and inevitably contains sharp features, such as interfaces and corners. When the device is subject to thermal and mechanical loads, the corners develop intense stress and are vulnerable sites to initiate failure. This paper analyzes stress fields at corners in flip-chip packages. The stress at a corner is a linear superposition of two modes of singular fields, with one mode being more singular than the other. The amplitudes of the two modes are represented by two stress intensity factors of dissimilar dimensions.

Chip-package interaction and interfacial delamination

In flip-chip package, the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the silicon die and packaging substrate induces concentrated stress field around the edges and corners of silicon die during assembly, testing and services. The concentrated stresses result in delamination on many interfaces on several levels of structures, in various length scales from tens of nanometers to hundreds of micrometers. A major challenge to model flip-chip packages is the huge variation of length scales, the complexity of microstructures, and diverse materials properties. In this paper, we simplify the structure to be silicon/substrate with wedge configuration, and neglect the small local features of integrated circuits. This macroscopic analysis on package level is generic with whatever small local features, as long as the physical processes of interest occur in the region where the concentrated stress field due to chip-packaging interaction dominates. Because it is the same driving force that motivates all of the flaws. Therefore, the different interface cracks with same size and same orientation but on different interfaces should have similar energy release rates provided that the cracks are much smaller than the macroscopic length. We calculate the energy release rate and the mode angle of crack on the chip-package interface based on the asymptotic linear elastic stress field. In a large range of crack length, the asymptotic solution agrees with finite element calculation very well. We discuss the simplified model and results in context of real applications. In addition, we find that the relation of energy release rate G and crack length a is not power-law since local mode mixity is dependent of crack length a. Therefore, the curve of G~a can be wavy and hardly goes to zero even if crack length a goes to atomically small. The local mode mixity plays an important role in crack behavior.

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