For the past few decades, with depletion of hydrocarbons in more readily accessible regions, petroleum operators have shown increasing interests in exploring onshore oil and gas reserves in Arctic areas, which are typically overlain by substantial permafrost layers on the order of 150 to 500 m thick. A key challenge to the completion of these wells is how to manage the impact of thaw subsidence of permafrost layers throughout expected well life.
Thermal technologies are widely used for the heavy oil recovery. The thermal processes usually consist of some variation of Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS), steam flood or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD). These thermal recovery applications have experienced numerous well casing failures around the world, often resulting in loss of wellbore integrity, lost production and added costs.
The Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) capabilities of Abaqus V6.9-EF1 could have a significant impact on finite element modeling of failure for the U. S. Army. The Army has many areas where fracture is important from failure of components, to penetration, to warhead development. To assess the value of XFEM under static loading, comparisons were made with experimental data of notched panels. The panels had different angles of notches. The crack growth direction and applied forces for crack growth were compared to experiments using ABAQUS.
In developing weapon systems for the warfighter, the US Army uses modeling and simulation tools to support the design, test and manufacturing of these systems. One of these tools is Abaqus/Explicit, including the coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian capability CEL. The addition of CEL in version 6.7EF-1 opened the door to a new realm of problems that could not be previously be modeled. With the addition of this new capability came the need for internal validation to establish a level of confidence for the class of problems of interest to the U.S. Army.
Monte Carlo reliability calculations for high-reliability systems are very computationally expensive. Variance reduction techniques optimize this process greatly and directional simulation is one such technique. Directional simulation is particularly valuable for high reliability systems where the failure surface is highly curved or dislocated.
A new method is introduced for conducting blast load analyses using the new Coupled-Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) capability of Abaqus/Explicit. In the past, either a 1-D blast code or tabular data was used to determine a pressure vs. time curve that would be applied to the exterior surfaces that were assumed to interact with the blast wave. These pressure curves were generated using knowledge of the amount/type of explosive and line-of-sight distance away from the explosion.
A finite element model is developed to investigate the instantaneous as well as long-term (time-dependant) structural response of a pre-loaded torsional spring. Torsional springs belong to a class of spiral springs that are commonly made out of Elgiloy - an alloy of Cobalt, Chromium, Nickel and Iron. Elgiloy has very high yield strength, and is commonly used as a spring material in clocks.
The U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ is developing an inert 40mm sensor grenade which houses an array of sensors and electronic components. This grenade is intended to be fired from a hand held launcher and relay sensory information back to the user. To accomplish this task, the internal electronic components must be structurally housed and guarded from impact induced g-levels.
The Army is developing new grenades with sensors instead of explosives. A grid of 40-mm grenades will be fired from conventional M16 rifles. The projectiles must survive gun launch and impact. After impact, soldiers will get a real-time ‘picture’ of a local area. Signals from the onboard sensors will be processed on a hand-held computer that captures the activity within the
In a firearm the firing cycle is a high-speed dynamic event, of short duration (a few milliseconds) and highly non-linear - large displacements, plasticity, contact - during which its components are subjected to pulse loads - high-pressure and temperature gas and impact between moving parts. In the design of any firearm choosing the locking (breech) system is the fundamental starting point as this will guarantee that the cartridge case is adequately supported to withstand the tremendous rearward thrust exerted by the powder gases.
In order for artillery projectile guidance and control systems to meet precision performance requirements it is necessary to utilize fin stabilization rather than the conventional means of spin stabilization of artillery projectiles. Since the munitions are fired from a gun tube it is necessary for the fins to be stowed and secured during launch and then deploy once the projectile has left the muzzle of the weapon.
The inspection and screening of flaws in high explosive filled gun fired projectiles are crucial to ensure safety for soldiers using these items. In bore failure of structural components are sure to produce lethal consequences, therefore it is of great importance to determine what the maximum permissible crack size is for a given component coming off of the production floor. The analytical process to determine critical flaw size occurs in two stages. First, ABAQUS Explicit finite element analysis code is used to conduct interior ballistic simulation of a 40mm shape charge projectile.
This study concerns simulation of the forming process of a carton-based package for liquid food (for example, milk or juice), and how the packaging material interacts with the fluid during the forming. The carton-based package is formed inside a filling machine while the fluid is being filled into the package. The carton-based package is thin with low bending stiffness and is thus deformed significantly at small loading. This implies that the forming of the package to a large extent depends on the dynamics of the fluid inside the package.
From a structural point of view, corrugated board would fit on the category of sandwich structures, which in sectors as aeronautics or construction are today commonly analysed using simulation tools that are based on the Finite Element Method.
The Virtual Race Track, VRT, suite of simulations is the most recent addition to the automation tools known as Virtual Package Simulation, VPS, for analyzing the performance of plastic bottles. These new simulations predict the dynamic performance of bottles traveling on conveyors. The objective is to determine if the bottles remain standing after impacting fixed guide rails and gates. The bottles must remain standing to be effectively conveyed. By using ABAQUS to predict this performance, designs can be evaluated much earlier in the product development cycle.
Production of glass bottles requires blowing of the glass after entrance of a gob of molten glass in the blank mould. The final shape of the bottle is highly dependent on the viscosity of the glass, the blow-pressure and the temperature distribution in the glass and the mould and simulation of this complicated process enables optimization of the process conditions. During simulation of blowing of the glass, the mesh has to be adapted due to the extreme deformations of the mesh.
Embossing of polymeric films destined for usage in the personal care marketplace is an industrial process that produces a very fine pattern, barely discernible to the naked eye, yet has a significant influence on some market-driven properties; more bulk, a soft and smooth touch, reduced crinkling noise and lower gloss. However this comes at a cost to the mechanical properties such as stiffness and ultimate strength capability.
ABAQUS is used to simulate interactions of an absorbent personal care product (a diaper), with its user and their environment. This problem, being almost completely driven by complex contact between highly deformable and moving bodies, is a challenging proposition. Advanced contact algorithms, non-linear material models and multi-body dynamic analysis capabilities in ABAQUS are used to successfully study the structural interactions of a diaper, a baby and their environment.
Origami is the art of paper folding. Our entire range of packages is formed from a flat web of packaging material using the origami technique. Virtual and reverse engineering are fundamental for the development of our technology. Complex simulations like extremely nonlinear dynamic events as well as design optimization are part of our daily activity. This paper describes how Simulia’s software with the help of automated tools has been successfully used to simulate the fundamental phases of our forming process driving in some cases its design.