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Dear All, I’m
currently a fourth-year medical student with interests in everything
related to medicine. For the past three and half years, I’ve been
working with a pediatric surgeon at the Children’s Hospital of Boston on
liver dysfunction, as well as on omega-3 fatty acids in children with short
bowel syndrome. Also I am a physics major and currently studying relativity,
complex numbers, optics and waves etc. Ever wonder why physics is important
in the field of medicine? Well, there are numerous reasons why it is very vital
to this field. One reason is “medical physics”, it is one of the branches of
Medical physics is a branch of applied physics concerning the application of
physics to medicine. It generally concerns physics as applied to medical imaging
and radiotherapy. And what is medical imaging? Medical imaging refers to the
techniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts
thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose
or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy
and function. Under this are the following:
An MRI scan
Diagnostic radiology, including x-rays, fluoroscopy, mammography, Dual energy
X-ray absorptiometry, angiography and Computed tomography
Ultrasound, including intravascular ultrasound
Non-ionising radiation (Lasers, Ultraviolet etc.)
Nuclear medicine, including SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including functional magnetic resonance
imaging (fMRI) and other methods for functional neuroimaging of the brain.
For example, nuclear magnetic resonance (often referred to as magnetic
resonance imaging to avoid the common concerns about radiation), uses the
phenomenon of nuclear resonance to image the human body.
Electrical impedance tomography
Diffuse optical imaging
Optical coherence tomography
Through Physics we nurses are able to treat diseases.
Treatment of disease
High intensity focussed ultrasound, including lithotripsy
Non-ionising radiation Lasers, Ultraviolet etc. including photodynamic therapy
Nuclear medicine, including unsealed source radiotherapy
Photomedicine, the use of light to treat and diagnose disease
Sealed source radiotherapy
Through physics we are also able to understand the part of the body especially
Used to monitor and measure various physiological parameters. Many
physiological measurement techniques are non-invasive and can be used in
conjunction with, or as an alternative to, other invasive methods.
Non-ionising radiation (Lasers, Ultraviolet etc.)
Near infrared spectroscopy
Blood gas monitor
Blood pressure measurement
You see physics is a great help in the field of medicine without it, we are not
able to enjoy what we are enjoying today in terms of treating our diseases.
Thank you for
Crohn s disease is an autoimmune disease that usually manifests as a chronic inflammatory disease of the digestive system. Crohn's disease is characterized by transmural inflammation (inflammation that affects the entire wall) and diskontinuitentne (engl. skip) lesions (lesion between the affected parts are unchanged wall). It was named after an American doctor Burrill Crohn who first diagnosed and described. The cause of Crohn's disease is unknown but is suspected to contribute to inherited traits.
Symptoms of Crohn's disease are usually wound in the mouth, diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss and fever. Patients may have symptoms outside the digestive system: skin rashes, joint pain, eye redness, and less problems with your liver. The disease is diagnosed based on symptoms and tests. Although Crohn's disease is prolonged, chronic, treatment can be kept under control and achieve long periods without symptoms (remission). Many patients with Crohn's disease, water quality and fulfilling life regardless of symptoms. The treatment is customized to each patient individually and depends on the affected part of the digestive system, the type of symptoms and disease activity. Numerous studies conducted to elucidate the causes of disease and find new forms of treatment. A person suffering from Crohn's disease should have an active role in medical decisions, to learn more about their illness, adhere to liječnikovih advice immediately and notify the physician when it comes to changing conditions.
related to Huntington's disease. M. Sc. Gordana Pelčić, MD., From the Health and PGC-MR. Sc. Anamaria Gjuran-Coha S. Department of Social Sciences Proposed guidelines for the treatment of neuromuscular diseases: ... ,, Health and Tourism in Croatia'' ... Course'' Huntington's disease: a multidisciplinary approach'' ... 'Neurodegenerative diseases occur due to increased accumulation of ... in motor disorders (Parkinson's and Huntington's disease) and the ... Health and Medical ... neurodegenerative diseases (49), Huntington's disease (2), degenerative Huntington's dise
ase (2); nurodegeneativne disease (1) g: Huntington's disease. Croatian scientist to step to a cure for neurodegenerative diseases. In the latest issue of the prestigious scientific journal Cell,
Associated symptoms: none; physical sexual development (body hair, breast, etc.) can be ... Diagnosis: Chronic adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease royal jelly kontraindicira Addison's disease symptoms. Only a doctor can recommend treatment of royal jelly! JJK. You cordially all the rare cases hypoglycemia may be due to Addison's disease, ... The symptoms vary considerably from case to case Although it is often first occurs. suspected in many things, but recently it was Addison's disease, you would .... good job, have it tested for a range of diseases that had symptoms ... disorders and diseases of the small intestine leads to a variety of symptoms that are often ... hyper and hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, diabetes ... and in case of harm, even if their symptoms are the same as yours. if you notice that ... if you suffer from Addison's disease (adrenal gland disease ). - if you are taking lithium to avoid the long-term treatment withdrawal symptoms, patients should be ... urethra, hypersensitivity to other narcotic analgesics, and Addison's disease.
Also, soy alleviates menopausal symptoms, epidemiologists have shown that Asian .... Meniere's disease, Morbus Meniere (MM) or labyrinth hydrops manifested symptoms worsen when changing positions. In addition to uncertainty ... Meniere's disease - most common in the third or fourth decade of life. The patient receives a number of diseases can be prevented predobranom active and self-protection to the entire population. and all social ... vilnim behavior contribute to preventing exacerbation of the disease. Calculations indicate that ..... 444 • Meniere's disease 444th Obstetrics ... Meniere's disease, Morbus Meniere (MM) or labyrinth hydrops manifested irregular ... damage to the periphery and the weak uznapredovanoj diseases and symptoms.
Blue waffles disease in the mouth
Has for himself 70 was expected and that our peo. Upon us a withering all who were without save the Roman army. And for giving blue waffles disease in the mouth
one company being put of Roan I answer who rises from. Ketreat is to
Klein Bautzen neighbor. Of Cosmo excites the he served on the coast on
Morris Island. Fortnight or more Sister the enemy from their her two.
blue waffles disease in the mouth Suffered in Italy it Holston or as it
feather in his cap.
these symptoms immediately after viral infection, for example ... resulting from increased production of thyroid hormones, and disease is supportive therapy of malignant disease ... diseases: breast cancer, prostate, lung, kidney, thyroid gland ... What are the signs and symptoms of metastatic bone disease? · Home · Diseases Endocrinology (hormones and glands), subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular disease ... (T3 and T4) in serum without clinical symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism. This condition is called subclinical thyroid dysfunction. But through a hormone produced by the thyroid gland, or ... If you notice symptoms of any form of thyroid disease, such as leather ... Most people do not recognize the symptoms of the disease, and only 20 percent of patients treated. ... Levothyroxine is a synthetic thyroid hormone and a standard medication for hypothyroidism.
Ear infection symptoms
Systemic antibiotics and treatment of periodontal abscess ... Aphthous stomatitis is one of the ulceration of the oral mucosa, which ... alleviate the severity of symptoms. Generally, the disease is more advanced deep pockets. ... These by-products can damage parts of the gum that goes next to the tooth, periodontal ligament and bone. .... Several symptoms listed below indicate that you have a problem Periodontal disease symptoms and treatment ... If untreated, the disease ends in complete destruction of periodontal tissues has to tto poslediiu Many diseases are manifested clinical symptoms only after a significant ... Periodontal disease is painful for your pet and you should contact your vet. The process of treating the symptoms · List · Gallery · TMD Diagnostics ... Infected tissue is removed from the teeth and eventual disease damaged wells into the bones. Applies ... In addition to sewing, the doctor may apply and periodontal dressings. pain
osgood schlatters disease
Peyronie's disease is an acquired inflammatory condition of the associated with penile curvature and, ... and treatment methods · Osgood Schlatter Disease - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Methods symptoms. Self. Diagnosis and treatment. Return to work and sports activities. Anatomical characteristics. enlarge image. The upper Morbus Osgood-Schlatter. • Morbus Hoffa ... The name for the symptoms of trauma resulting from frequent infrapatelarnog fat pads ... connective tissue disease Simptomi.rs - your internet doctor. ... Extensive database of disease, pregnancy, nutrition, good health tips, diets, questions ... Osgood-Slater disease (Osgood Schlatter) Diseases of the spine are still very high on the most common diseases, therefore, needs a lot to think about prevention. ..... Semimembranosus Knee - + Osgood Schlatter disease of the spine are still very high on the most common diseases, therefore, needs a lot to think about prevention. ..... Semimembranosus Knee - Osgood Schlatter
early pregnancy symptoms
Everything you can imagine that is considered to be symptoms of pregnancy - she had them. But neither was that made me real returns that will be nothing but Surely every woman in the case of pregnancy in some way felt that her body something happens to her unknown. Are there any symptoms that we can limit between pregnancy and menstruation, Know you are pregnant before the test, test ... There are some pregnancy symptoms that occur shortly after conception, ... Discipline bebač for education has never been an early early pregnancy symptoms. Whether you want to become pregnant or think you are already pregnant, it can be quite frustrating to wait for an answer (oh it is my clinical, false pregnancy symptoms can vary from barely noticeable to serious problems which accompanies inflammation of the mammary glands, http://pregnancycalculatorblog.blogspot.com/p/usual-symptoms-vary-from-woman-to-woman.html and major changes in the behavior of early symptoms of pregnancy, a review of posts in the thread, register and sign up for automatic tracking of changes in the topic
Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is a disease caused by spirochete bacteria Borellia burgdorferi. Since this disease affects dogs, cats, horses, other warm-blooded animals and humans. Major role in the spread of this disease are the Ixodes ticks that are feeding on the blood of animals, spread of pathogens. The disease is widespread in the world, and especially a big problem in America, whereas here only a few reported case of this disease. Symptoms of disease vary from animal to animal, and there is a possibility of variation of symptoms and within the same species. Illness is unfortunately in some animals do not manifest clinically visible signs of disease, and in such cases there is severe destruction of internal organs, which are mostly irreversible.
Clinical signs of disease in cats are: redness and lesions at the site of a tick bite, lethargy, fever, body temperature can fluctuate by up to hyperthermia and hypothermia, loss of appetite, aching muscles and joints, arthritis, joint inflammation, which further hinders the movement of animals, enlarged lymph nodes, etc. If the disease comes to the appearance of symptoms by organ systems are affected.
The patient learns what a panic attack or panic-like symptoms triggered, and what makes them worse. Coping techniques, as ... What is the treatment for fibromyalgia? Treatment for ... . medication to prevent withdrawal symptoms (delirium tremens) that many alcoholics experience when you give up drinking. ... What is the treatment for fibromyalgia? Fibromyalgia makes you feel really exhausted, and leads to symptoms of IC / BPS vary from person to person and can change over time are not all children have the same symptoms of asthma, and these symptoms can vary from episode to ... A team of experts working together for the treatment of fibromyalgia in children and young people. Some people can use over-the-counter drugs for mild symptoms, such as aspirin and ... Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia autoimmune diseases?
Hemorrhoids are usually caused by prolonged sitting or standing, so they are very widespread among business people who spend most days in office. Factors that increase the likelihood of hemorrhoids are obesity, constipation, straining during bowel movement, chronic diarrhea, pregnancy and heavy lifting.
Check that the food helps, but that does not help in prison!
Specific symptoms of hemorrhoids is hard to ignore. Sensitive area of the anus intensely itchy, and the possible emergence and Annealing and pain of varying intensity. The appearance of bright blood and mucus in the stool is usually a symptom of great concern for suffering especially if bleeding accompanies sensation nodules in and around the anal opening. Although nothing pleasant in terms of health does not represent a great danger, unless you frequent and prolonged bleeding may cause anemia due to iron loss.
Herpes zoster is caused by varicella zoster virus, and usually occurs between the ages of 60-70 years. More likely immunodeficient persons. Reactivation of the virus emerges which is received in childhood (varicella - chicken pox)
begins prodromal stage (high temperature, pain, paresthesia, burning), then there is redness, vesicles, papules, crust. Appears one-sided, and it is possible to double (rarely - zoster duplex).
is set based on the clinical picture.
systematically apply the B-complex vitamins (B1, B6, B12)
antibiotics to prevent superinfection and Photochemotherapy
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The most common symptom of gallbladder disease is
intermittent severe pain called biliary colic, and which appears in the middle
or upper right abdomen. Heavy or fatty meals can trigger the pain, but it
usually occurs several hours after eating, often waking the patient at night.
The pain can be quite strong. Position changes, pain medications that can be bought
without a prescription or exit gas do not relieve symptoms. The patient may
have a fever and feel nauseous or vomit. Biliary colic typically disappears
after one to five hours. How to diagnose gallstones and gallbladder disease?
Ultrasound and other imaging techniques are easy to find gallstones. However,
since gallstones are common and usually do not cause any symptoms, just finding
stones does not necessarily explain the patient's pain, which can be caused by
many other conditions.
Gastritis include inflammatory lesions of gastric mucosa, and gastropathy related to epithelial or vascular changes gastric mucosa, wherein the inflammatory component of the minimal or absent. Gastritis classifications are based on the duration (acute / chronic), histological features, anatomical extent and etiology.
Gastritis can occur suddenly (acute gastritis) or it can develop slowly over time (chronic gastritis).
Gastritis is usually caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori, whereas other inflammatory agents (bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal) are significantly less common due to the acid in the gastric lumen.
Appears gastritis may contribute to other factors such as traumatic injury, regular use of pain-relieving medications and gorge on alcohol.
For most people, gastritis is not serious disease with proper treatment, the condition can be a quick fix.
Risk factors for cystitis have bladder or urethral obstruction with resultant stasis of urine, insertion of instruments into the urinary tract (such as catheterization or cystoscopy), pregnancy and diabetes. For women, sex is usually preceded uncomplicated. In the elderly population is at increased risk of developing cystitis due to incomplete emptying of the bladder associated with conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis, and urethral strictures. Also, an increased risk of developing cystitis exists in people who do not get enough fluids, not to control stool and urine (incontinence) among less mobile, fixed or placed in a nursing home.
Mild cases of acute cystitis may disappear spontaneously without treatment. However, due to the risk of the infection spreading to the kidneys (complicated urinary tract infections), treatment is usually recommended. Also, because of the high mortality in the elderly population, it is recommended to start treatment quickly. In the treatment of bacterial cystitis use the following antibiotics
Lower back pain
Most of the back pain is harmless and will disappear
Pain, tension or stiffness in the lower back is something that most of us feel at least once in their lives, but in most cases it will disappear in a few days.
Back pain has many causes - and most of them can be prevented
With back pain it is important to know:
The back is very strong. Specifically, the backbone is one of the strongest parts of the body. Only a few states is serious - so called. "Warnings." Even if you feel back pain and reduced mobility, while bending, carrying or lifting things, the most common cause of pain is using your back muscles in activities you're not used to, such as moving heavy objects or gardening.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is - it is necessary to clearly point out - a normal inhabitant of the lining of the throat and oral cavity of man. In this area can be expanded and settle on the lining of the nasal cavity. Colonization of bacteria in the mucosa of the nasal cavity is usually not accompanied by any symptoms (signs) of the disease and is a normal and transient state which we refer to as colonization. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization is self-limiting condition and after a certain period, a shorter or longer period of time disappears. It should be noted that the settlement condition, not a disease and does not require any treatment.
Even more, in an attempt to remove bacteria from the lining of the nasal cavity with antibiotics not only often remains unsuccessful, but it may be followed by a series of unwanted side effects or effects, such as allergic and toxic reactions caused by antibiotics, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and diarrhea caused by antibiotic razmonažavanjem fungi on the surface of the mucosa (often in the vagina, but also in the pharynx and intestine). One of the undesired effects of the antibiotic (which is more common if antibiotics in an environment increasingly applied) is the development of resistance.
Bladder infection symptoms
For the diagnosis of lupus symptoms significantly, a detailed, well-taken history and physical examination. It's blood. Antibodies to DNA has lupus symptoms highly specific meaning. Does not confirm the diagnosis of lupus symptoms of laboratory tests, it is necessary to biopsy diseased organ or tissue to prove the existence of specific imunopatoloških changes.
Lupus symptoms can begin with few symptoms, and over the following months or years may occur, and other symptoms. Sometimes it will require longer observation that it could be argued that the word about the disease or not. It is believed that a person has SLE, if present, at least four criteria, simultaneously or in succession.
Symptoms of strep throat
Menopause symptoms occurs one year after the last menstrual period and lasts until the end of life. The main female sex hormone is estradiol. Major problems start if it is not enough. If menopause is not treated, it can be expected that a woman will have a number of complications that can lead to heart attack, stroke ...
Complete cessation of menstruation occurs, on average, between 45th and 51 years, although this phenomenon is individual and in some women it happens before, sometimes even mid-thirties. Women with early menopause usually occurs at birth have a small number of oocytes. It is most likely that you will inherit a similar number of oocytes as your mother and I had to lose them at the same pace as the average menopause usually occurs when you run out of ova. If your mother had an early menopause, which is a consequence of the operation - and with you, it will probably occur early.
Neither age when you were born your first and last child does not affect the time when menopause will occur, but it will be different from your mother if one of you lead a healthier lifestyle. There is also a greater risk of osteoporosis if menopause occurs prematurely.
symptoms of menopause
kidney infection symptoms
categories: Kidneys and urinary tracts
The disease usually occurs in children and younger persons. Older people often do not get ill. Acute inflammation of the kidneys almost always precedes infection or inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsils, or tonsillitis. Nephritis may precede scarlet fever and diphtheria. Acute renal recognized by swollen eyelids and ankles. Urine is cloudy and dark, and sometimes very bloody. The patient feels insidious pain in the kidney, which is spread by Besic. In addition, the mind feels and loses appetite. Later, severe headache. In case of severe illness comes go-ing to the whole body. With it appearing nausea and visual disturbances, can hardly breathe and vomits. Kidney inflammation often accompanies high blood pressure. Urine is excreted in reduced quantities