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Freely jointed chain
A single strand of polymer is a chain of a large number of monomers. The monomers are joined by covalent bonds, and two bonded monomers may rotate relative to each other. At a finite temperature, the polymer rapidly changes from one configuration to another. When the two ends of the polymer are pulled by a force, the distance between the two ends changes. The polymer is known as an entropic spring. These notes are developed as part of statistical thermodynamics to supplement the course on advanced elasticity.