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Functionally Graded Materials

Dhirendra Kubair's picture

Dear Fellow Mechanicians,

My group is looking into some aspects of fracture in "functionally graded materials". I was curious to know if there are groups (on imechanica) interested or actively pursuing research on functionally graded materials or nanocomposites.

kubair@aero.iisc.ernet.in

Ji Wang's picture

There are many groups working on FGM and applications.  Recently from my study we foudn that the FGM can be used in devices with distinct properties.  There are tremendous literatures on FGM and it is relatively easy to trace the new directions of such groups.

Ji Wang

Dear Prof. Ji. Wang

Good Morning

I am NEERAJ BHARDWAJ. My group is working on VIBRATION OF PLATES AND SHELLS. We are very curious to study on VIBRATION as well as Thermal effect on FUNCTIONALLY GRADED PLATES. But, we have no idea about it. Please suggest me the some basic books on functionally graded materials which would help for beginners.

With best of my regards

Dr. NEERAJ BHARDWAJ

Senior Lecturer

Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities

Sector 23-A, Gurgaon, HAryana(INDIA)

E-mail: bneerajdma@gmail.com

Rajsekhar

Hi,

 

i am also working in the area of FGM. Let me know if we can share the knowledge.

sandy

 

Dear Prof.Sandy

Good Morning

I am NEERAJ BHARDWAJ. My group is working on VIBRATION OF PLATES AND SHELLS. We are very curious to study on VIBRATION as well as Thermal effect on FUNCTIONALLY GRADED PLATES. But, we have no idea about it. Please suggest me the some basic books on functionally graded materials which would help for beginners.

With best of my regards

Dr. NEERAJ BHARDWAJ

Senior Lecturer

Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities

Sector 23-A, Gurgaon, HAryana(INDIA)

E-mail: bneerajdma@gmail.com

Roozbeh Sanaei's picture

  Is optimization of Material Profile for funtionally graded material to reach    maximum Transmission loss or maximum critical frequency coud be interesting topic?

Dear Roozbeh,

 Can u tell us in details?

Sandyg 

Roozbeh Sanaei's picture

each funtionally graded material have material profile that shows how material distributes over the material. this profile could be optimized in order to reach a purpose. i want to optimize it in order to reach maximum transmission loss or critical frequency.

is it an interesting objective?

 

Dhirendra Kubair's picture

Dear Sandy and Roozbeh

 

Nice to know you both on imechanica. Our group is working towards understanding the effect of material property inhomogeneity on fracture of FGMs.

We are trying to understand both the effect of inertia (dynamic fracture mechanics) and material inelasticity (plastic fracture mechanics).

In our dynamic fracture mechanics simulations of rapid crack propagation, we assume a known mathematical function for the material property inhomogeneity. This study has enabled us to understand that the inhomogeneous material property variations affect the crack opening, displacement, velocity of propagation and the energetics of propagation. We predict that a crack grows faster in an FGM when the material progressively becomes softer and less denser away from the crack plane. While a reverse is predicted for an FGM in which the material progressively stiffens.

 

We have been looking into the asymptotics around a crack in a ductile FGM. In this, we are interested to understand the near-tip singularity in graded materials. As in elastic FGM's we see that the most singular (HRR) term in the asymptotic expansion remains unaltered even in a ductile FGM. A distinct second less-singular term (unlike a non-singular term in LEFM) exists for only a few cases of the material property gradations.

 

Please post your research interests and topics pursued in your group so as to enable us interact on imechanica.

 

Thanks

 

Kubair

 

http://www.aero.iisc.ernet.in/cdfm

Dear Dhirendra,

 

This is Zhen in Suo's group. You mention the second less-singular term in your study. I am now doing the mixed mode with distinct singularities, such as http://imechanica.org/node/86, http://imechanica.org/node/434, http://imechanica.org/node/808. So I am interested in your work related to the split singularities.

Could you send me some papers or related work about your observation of distinct second less-singular term?

Thanks a lot.

Hi

I am Adel Samiei.I am working on the vibration and natural frequency of functionally graded materials.I want to know is it possible to product FGM plates in a Factory?

Thanx

Ahmad Rafsanjani's picture

Functionally graded materials are investigated in literatures in two cases:

1- Mechanical behaviour under thermal conditions

2- Mechanical behaviour without considering the thermal loading (Free vibration, dynamic response, static response...)

I want to know if thermal loading can be seperated from FGM analysis and studying FGM structures without thermal loading is applicable?

And also I want to know which method is more usefull in dynamic analysis of functionally graded structures?

Ahmad Rafsanjani Abbasi

amin_ucf2002's picture

Hi ahamad

I think it depends on your problem. If in your problem does not have any shock nature (to stimulate thermal waves) , you can analysis the vibration without considering coupling between temperature and displacement. Otherwise, you can use theory of coupled thermoelasticity or generalized thermoelasticity in which temperature propagate like displacement waves.

 Regards,

Amin

Roozbeh Sanaei's picture

each funtionally graded material have material profile that shows how material distributes over the material. this profile could be optimized in order to reach a purpose. i want to optimize it in order to reach maximum transmission loss or critical frequency.

is it an interesting objective?

Dhirendra Kubair's picture

Dear Ahmad,

FGM analysis without considering themal stresses is available in the literature. The following are representative examples

  1. JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME 73 (5): 783-791 SEP 2006
  2. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES 43 (13): 3920-3939 JUN 2006
  3. EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS 46 (2): 179-196 APR 2006
  4. JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME 72 (4): 461-467 JUL 2005
  5. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FRACTURE 141 (1-2): 11-25 SEP 2006
  6. EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS 46 (2): 269-281 APR 2006
  7. EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS 46 (2): 137-154 APR 2006
  8. JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME 72 (2): 237-248 MAR 2005
  9. EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS 45 (2): 153-159 APR 2005
  10. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLASTICITY 21 (6): 1195-1254 2005

Hope the above list is helpful

 

Thanks

 

Kubair

http://www.aero.iisc.ernet.in/cdfm

Hi all,

 

nice to see all of u here. I am working on the mechanical properties of FGM and material is epoxy resin and Microballoons. we are into fabrication and testing of these materials. I finished one project recently and that was flexural testing of FGM. I do understand a little bit what Roobeh is saying but probably need more reference on these kind of works. Is there any good journal paper? I would suggest to start with some problem and discuss on that so that we can learn some good stuff here. so if everyone thinks its a good idea then post one problem. 

Sandy 

Dhirendra Kubair's picture

Dear Zhen,

The paper that describes the asymptotics around a mode 3 crack in a ductile FGM is available online in the ASME JAM

the details are

JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME 72 (4): 461-467 JUL 2005

I do have a PDF file formatted by the journal (cannot post due to copyright), in case you have trouble in downloading from the JAM site, I can mail you the same. I will also read your post carefully about the split singularities and then we can discuss.

Kubair 

 

http://www.aero.iisc.ernet.in/cdfm

Dhirendra Kubair's picture

Dear Sandy,

 It is a good idea to discuss on some research problem of common interest.

 

One topic that comes to mind is how to determine (experimentally) the material property gradient. I have not come across a straight forward answer to the above. Most experimental works available in the literature on FGMs manufacture their own specimen and the material property gradient is controlled while manufacturing. If say, one obtains a FGM of the shelf and wants to characterize, how can it be done. Is it possible to determine the inhomogeneity by performing macroscopic tests, like say a tensile test.

 

In some of our analysis we see that the mechanical response of FGM systems is dependent on the boundary conditions (one would expect not to be). Say for example, one gets different results by applying either a traction or a displacement boundary conditions in a multiple isoparametric FEM framework. If anyone has some experience  on this, please do share it with us.

Kubair 

http://www.aero.iisc.ernet.in/cdfm

Dear prof. Kubair,

I'm Vincenzo D'Alessandro, a student of University of Naples in Italy.

You write about experimental works in literature, but until now I've found only few papers about these. 

Actually I'm interested in concrete application of FGMs to write a paper, and so I'm searching for both papers about experimental tests and examples of structures in which FGMs are already present.

 

I hope you can help me.

 

Best regards

 Vincenzo D'Alessandro

Ahmad Rafsanjani's picture

I think the advantages of FGM materials is behined its response due to thermal loading. in many cases however many researches performed their researches on FGM materials without considering thermal condition of the problem but in most cases it is obviuos that using functionally graded materials will not only improve mechanical properties of the structure but also makes it worse (if there is not thermal loading). I think the aim of design of FGMs is to be capable to prevent stress concentarion and some sharp behaviour in the systems. unfortunately in many cases the papers published in this field are far from reality and are not applicable in industrial scales. thanks to Mr Kubair for sending these usefull references.

If you have any other opinion about this topic, o not hesitate. let me know.

Best regards,

Ahmad Rafsanjani Abbasi

Ahmad Rafsanjani's picture

I think the advantages of FGM materials is behined its response due to thermal loading. in many cases however many researches performed their researches on FGM materials without considering thermal condition of the problem but in most cases it is obviuos that using functionally graded materials will not only improve mechanical properties of the structure but also makes it worse (if there is not thermal loading). I think the aim of design of FGMs is to be capable to prevent stress concentarion and some sharp behaviour in the systems. unfortunately in many cases the papers published in this field are far from reality and are not applicable in industrial scales. thanks to Mr Kubair for sending these usefull references.

If you have any other opinion about this topic, o not hesitate. let me know.

Best regards,

Ahmad Rafsanjani Abbasi

Kubair,To answer your question on how to measure the mechanical properties like elastic modulus and poisson’s ratio, you can use the ultrasonic probe which gives the shear and longitudinal velocities which then can be used to calculate modulus and poisson ratio.I hope I understood your question correctly.  Thanksnitesh

nitesh

Henry Tan's picture

Different types of armor are used to protect different areas of the vehicle, partly to reduce weight for a given amount of protection and partly to combine projectile protection with load-bearing capability. These protection system components will consist of combinations of metals, ceramics, and polymers.

Functionally graded metal/ceramic composite materials can combine the beneficial properties of a metal toughness, ductility, heat conductivity with those of a ceramic hardness, stiffness, heat resistance. The ceramic side would be brought into contact with the external agent and the metal side would provide integral structural support.

 

Dhirendra Kubair's picture

 Dear Dr. Bharadwaj,

 

The following book Fundamentals of functionally graded materialsS Suresh and A Mortensen 

is a very good book to start. 

http://www.aero.iisc.ernet.in/cdfm

Ji Wang's picture

I am glad to see there are overwhelm interests in the FGM and applications.  We have been working on FGM for about two years with sponsored projects.  Major research work are being done by Prof Zheng Zhong, Tongji University, Prof Weiqiu Chen, Zhejiang University, with a number of collaborators in other schools.

The basic approach has been usual: particular pattern of FGM which can give you analytical solutions first, then extended to other schemes.

For myself, I am intersted in FGM in acoustic wave devices, which may lead to new device structures.  We have some results and publications, and more results are in the pipeline.

What we have found is also usual: the differential equations fromthe complicated material property change can be solved by Forbenius Method.  Lately, we are tryign to use the HAM (http://numericaltank.sjtu.edu.cn/) for the equations to be solved.

 

For books, one by GR Liu, CRC Press, maybe closer to the analysis and FEM part.

It is always great to meet colleagues on the same subject.

Hi,

i'm interested in numerical analysis of fgm. but i need apdl codes for describe material properties of fgm.

Can you help me?

Thanks.

Leon Mishnaevsky's picture

Ulukoy,

we carried out some numerical simulations of deformation and damage behavior of Functionally graded Composites. In so doing, we considered first a particle reinforced composites with graded particle distribution and non-percolating microstructures, and then graded interpenetrating phase composites. You can download papers from http://www.risoe.dk/afm/personal/lemi/, in particular, http://www.risoe.dk/afm/personal/lemi/papers/voxel-paper.pdf and http://www.risoe.dk/afm/personal/lemi/papers/paper_fgm.pdf.

Best Regards

Leon Mishnaevsky, Denmark

hi, everyone i want to model fgm in ansys r abaqus,can anybody help me?

PRADEEP KUMAR J

Mr. Mishnaevsky thanks for your guidance,but your links are damaged,can you send these papere for me,please?
my mail: parghazeh@gmail.com

Dear Mishnaevsky,

Thanks for the papers. I will examine power law fgm first,  and then

sigmoid and exponential fgm.

Best Regards

 

vikulp sharma's picture

hi all

i want to get some literature for finite element analysis of FGM shell. currently i am working on the multiobjective optimization of fgm shells.

with regards

vikulp sharma

 

hi, everyone i want to model fgm in ansys r abaqus,can anybody help me?

PRADEEP KUMAR J

Hi all,

I want to know which factories product FGM.

Thanks.

BoJing Zhu's picture

hi,

our group is studying 3D cracks problem in fully coupled electromagnetothermoelastic multiphase composites about 8 years.

perhaps i think we can solve shell crack problem byhypersingular integral equation method

if you interested this method you can find related papers on web: Noda, N.A; Taiyan Qin; Renji Tang; Mengcheng Chen; Chaojin Yue; Chunhui Xu; Pan ernian et al

Hi,

In the theoritical/computational analysis, one or more propertis are assumed to vary according to some function. I was interested to know (mainly from manufacturing/experimental groups), what are the properties that may be varied or if they may be varied according to any mathematical function or not. It will be helpful to get some works regarding this.

 

Sandip Haldar

i would like to have some assistance from all regarding crack propagation in annular disk at tang location using ABAQUS

Hi,

i am working on fracture in FGM shell element applying cohesive zone model. So, i am including the rotation effect in the Xu and Needleman´s potential  and using 3D interface line element. I´d like to know if there are someone doing something similar.

Thanks for all

 

binhvmr's picture

Nice to see all of you here. I am working on the mechanical properties of FGMs. I want to know recently model for FGMs plate. Multi-layered based on Mindlin theory can be applied? Plz help me to know that.

Thks

flong208's picture

I' m also involved in the field fo FGM, but my concern is more practical application. I'm investigation contact stress and fretting wear of ball-track contact  of a ball bearing like part, the case or inductive hardened surface of the track is typically plastically graded material,  when the surface is coated, then, which becomes a problem of elastic graded material. My concern is to anlysis the fracture and fatigue considering this kind of graded surface(first, only pay attention to plastically  graded surface) . But, the problem is how to reflect this kind of graded surface in FEM model(I use ANSYS) in contact analysis?

I' m so glad there are so many experts here, and please share some experience of FEM anlysis of DGM, or kindly give me some advices.

flong208's picture

Hello, dear Kubair

     Recently, I'm thinking about this problem:common engineering processes such as shot peening, ion implantation, deep rolling and case hardening introduce graded surface to machine elements in a controlled manner, especially hardening case or induction hardening are often used to modify the surfaces of many machine element, such as bearings and gears. 

   My question is: will this kind of (most of time is plastically) graded surface affect the fracture or failure of the contact surface? In another words, different engineering processes(such as case hardening and induction hardening) introduce different plastically graded surface, will this affect the failure of the contact surface?

   Can you kindly give me some advice?

Dhirendra Kubair's picture

 Dear Flong,

 

Inhomogeneous ductility or plastically graded surfaces indeed change the fracture behavior.  The surface treatments that you have mentioned will indeed alter the ductility from the surface to interior. The length scale of the property gradient might not be comparable to the size of the plastic zone.  Fatigue, fretting and fracture of plastically graded surfaces could be different depending on the inhomogeneity length scale.

 

One can use a multiple isoparametric finite elements to model graded materials in any standard finite elements. 

 

Kubair

http://www.mae.usu.edu

 

flong208's picture

Dear Professor Kubair:

    Your answer to my doubts really inspired me! Thank you very much!

In your comments saying"The length scale of the property gradient might not be comparable to the size of the plastic zone.Fatigue, fretting and fracture of plastically graded surfaces could be different depending on the inhomogeneity length scale. "

 Is it means that it is not worth to pay attention to this kind of plastically graded surface?

and, about the "fretting and fracture of plastically graded surfaces could be different depending on the inhomogeneity length scale", can yur kindly suggest me some literatures or bookd to get more information about this problem.

 Sincerely yours

  Longjiang

Dhirendra Kubair's picture

Dear Longjiang,

 

We had performed asymptotic analysis of an antiplane shear crack in a ductile FGM. The paper discusses about the competition between the material inhomogeneity and plasticity length scales.

 

Title: Asymptotic analysis of a mode III stationary crack in a ductile functionally graded material
Author(s): Kubair, DV; Geubelle, PH; Lambros, J
Source: JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME   Volume: 72   Issue: 4   Pages: 461-467   Published: JUL 2005 

 Kubair

http://www.mae.usu.edu

flong208's picture

Dear Professor Kubair:

    I've read your paper, it is obviously that you and your group have done very much significant work in this field! but I have a further question:

   1.In your paper:"The plastic material gradient is assumed to be in the radial direction only", in what kind of engneering will occur similar situation?

2. In normal engineering surface, the drection of the plastic gradient is from the surface to the  core(most of the time the yield strength is deacrease from the surface to the core), when the plastic gradient is big enough, can it prevent the crack beneath the surface develop towards the surface?

your sincerely

Longjiang

flong208's picture

Dear Professor Kubair:

About using multiple isoparametric finite elements to model graded materials, can you give me move details? I can only find isoparametric element in ANSYS but not multiple isoparametric elements. And can you  give me a example of modeling graded material using a certain standard finite elements software?

thank you very munch!

your sincerely

Dhirendra Kubair's picture

Dear  Longjiang,

 

Please see these papers from my group.

 Title: Stress concentration factor due to a circular hole in functionally graded panels under uniaxial tension
Author(s): Kubair, DV; Bhanu-Chandar, B
Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCES  Volume: 50   Issue: 4   Pages: 732-742   Published: 2008

 

Title: Cohesive modeling of low-velocity impact damage in layered functionally graded beams

Author(s): Kubair, DV; Lakshmana, BK
Source: MECHANICS RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS   Volume: 35  Issue: 1-2   Pages: 104-114   Published: 2008 

One way to use commercial packages is to do an elaborate pre-processing. You should first evaluate material parameters such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio for each element and then input them for each and every element in the input data file. This might not get you accurate results, that is the best one could do with ANSYS (assuming that one cannot modify the K-matrix by an user defined subroutine). Else, there are groups I know where they have UMAT routines to use in ABACUS. I am not familiar with ANSYS, you could find out if ANSYS has any facility to input user defined K-matrix calculations by a user defined subroutine. If so, you could do the same and use a higher order integration scheme using a 2-D, 9-noded iso-parametric element, as 2-D 4-noded elements will not converge to an accurate solution as you can see from our studies mentioned above.

 

Kubair

 

 

http://www.mae.usu.edu

Venkat Bharath's picture

Hello Everone, 

 I am working on Impact/Blast loadings on Composite/Sandwich structures. I am simulating models in Abaqus/CAE.  I want to extend my study into FGMs. IS it possible to create a FGM material bevavious in Abaqus?? If yes, can someone please explain or give some reference??

 

Best Regards,
Venkat Bharath,

Senior Grad (5th year) Student,

Department of Civil Engineering,

Indian Institute of Technology, KharaGPur- 721302
India
bharath1911@gmail.com

tamnguyen14's picture

FGMs

HI  everybody

as well as mr. Venkat Bharath i am working on buckling of fgm cylindrical shell in the thermal inviorment.

IS it possible to create a FGM material bevavious in Abaqus??

 

am currently doing my project in functionally gradient materials..i
want to know the journal papers/notes regarding functionally gradient
bronze alloys 1)how to prepare functionally gradient materials 2)what
are the properties we can achieve.3)

hi, everyone i want to model fgm in ansys ,can anybody help me?

PRADEEP KUMAR J

Hi

a want to model a FGM timoshenko's beam in abaqus. i don't know how simulate a fgm in abaqus. just there are two ways for modeling. the first way is UMAT and second way is partitioning. i'm interested to know a bout modeling with partitioning. i don't know about this. plz help me. if any one have toturial file about modeling, i think it is very useful for me.

thanks

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