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Analytical solutions for plastic deformation around voids in anisotropic single crystals
It is well established that the growth of microscopic voids near a crack tip plays a fundamental role in establishing the fracture behavior of ductile metals. Mechanics analyses of plastic void growth have typically assumed the plastic properties of the surrounding metal to be isotropic. However voids are typically of the order of magnitude of one micron so that they exist within individual grains of the metal, or along grain boundaries, at least at the initial growth stage. For that reason, the plastic properties of the material surrounding the void are most properly treated as being anisotropic, rather than isotropic.
In the uploaded preprint, the stress state and deformation state are derived around a cylindrical void in a hexagonal close packed single crystal. The orientation of the cylindrical void and the loading state relative to the crystal are chosen so that the deformation state is one of plane strain. The active slip systems reduce to a total of three slip systems which act within the plane of plane strain. The solution shows that the deformation state consists of angular sectors around the void within which only one slip system is active. Further, it is shown that the stress state and deformation state exhibit self-similarity both radially and circumferentially, as well as periodicity along certain logarithmic spirals which emanate from the void surface.
In addition to the work presented in this preprint, my research group has also recently published a similar derivation for a cylindrical void in a face cenered cubic crystal. It is interesting to note for the face centered cubic case that the applied far-field pressure necessary to cause plastic void growth can be up to 50% larger than that required for a void in an isotropic plastic material.
The abstract of the paper about the void in the hexagonal close packed crystal follows. The paper will appear in the International Journal of Plasticity.
The analytical solution is derived for the plane strain stress field around a cylindrical void in a hexagonal close-packed single crystal with three in-plane slip systems oriented at the angle 60 degrees with respect to one another. The critical resolved shear stress on each slip system is assumed to be equal. The crystal is loaded by both internal pressure and a far-field equibiaxial compressive stress. The deformation field takes the form of angular sectors, called slip sectors, within which only one slip system is active; the boundaries between different sectors are radial lines. The stress fields are derived by enforcing equilibrium and a rigid, ideally-plastic constitutive relationship, in the spirit of anisotropic slip line theory. The results show that each slip sector is divided into smaller regions denoted as stress sectors and the stress state valid within each stress sector is derived. It is shown that stresses are unique and are continuous within stress sectors and across stress sector boundaries, but the gradient of stresses is not continuous across the boundaries between stress sectors. The solution shows self-similarity in that the stresses over the entire domain can be determined from the stresses within a small region adjacent to the void by invoking certain scaling and symmetry properties. In addition, the stress state exhibits periodicity along logarithmic spirals which emanate from the void. The results predict that the mean value of in-plane pressure required to activate plastic deformation around a void in a single crystal can be higher than that necessary for a void in an isotropic material and is sensitive to the orientation of the slip systems relative to the void.
The preprint can be downloaded from here.