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What are the differences between "strain hardening" and "work hardening"?

Shunlai.Zang's picture

I think the concepts from the constitutive theory, but in many papers the researchers seem that they dont differentiate them.  So could you give me an exact explanation about it?  Thank you.

Shun lai Zang  
B.Eng, MSc, PhD
Lectuer in Material Science and Engineering

School of Mechanical Engineering
Xi'an Jiaotong University
Xi'an ,Shaanxi,China


My understanding is that these terms are jargons by different societies. Work hardening seems to be often used by material scientists but strain hardening is commonly seen in mechanical society.

Literally, work hardening may bear broader implications. A metal can be hardened without apparent macroscopic straining by forging operations.

You may also see isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening in plasticity theories.
The concept of Kinematic hardening is based on residual stresses which evolve due to deformation and microstructures in a polycrystal, such as grain boundaries, cross slips, etc. Kinematic hardening can explain the Bausinger effect but isotropic hardening cannot.

There are also explanations about 'dissipative hardening' and 'energetic hardening' if you read Gurtin and Anand's papers about gradient plasticity.

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