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Constitutive theory for highly entangled hydrogels by considering the molecular friction

By considering the frictional sliding of randomly distributed entanglements within the polymer network upon mechanical stretches, we develop a constitutive theory to describe the large stretch behaviors of highly entangled hydrogels. 




Lixiang Yang's picture

Hello Dear,


It is very nice and interesting publication. I have a question for you. 

In Figure 6 b and c, the stress-stain curve is changed from no hysteresis to some hysteresis by changing the friction coefficient. Are there any more physical explainations for that?


Thank you,


Dear Lixiang,

       Thank you for your question! I would like to clarify that the model prediction in Fig. 6b pertains to a fully swollen hydrogel with a high water content, whereas the prediction in Fig. 6c relates to a highly entangled hydrogel prepared with limited water content. Our model analysis indicates that the friction coefficient between chains and entanglements in these two distinct hydrogels varies significantly.

      In our understanding, water plays a crucial role in influencing the direct molecular interactions between the chains and entanglements. Additionally, the water content may impact the geometric configuration of entanglements and also that of chains, leading to further differences in behavior. I hope that this explanation addresses your query.

Best regards,


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