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Piezoelectricity above the Curie temperature? Combining flexoelectricity and functional grading to enable high-temperature elect

Most technologically relevant ferroelectrics typically lose piezoelectricity above the Curie temperature. This limits their use to relatively low temperatures. In this Letter, exploiting a combination of flexoelectricity and simple functional grading, we propose a strategy for high-temperature electromechanical coupling in a standard thin film configuration. We use continuum modeling to quantitatively demonstrate the possibility of achieving apparentpiezoelectric materials with large and temperature-stable electromechanical coupling across a wide temperature range that extends significantly above the Curie temperature. With Bariumand Strontium Titanate, as example materials, a significant electromechanical coupling that is potentially temperature-stable up to 900 °C is possible.

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